Universal Battery Charger

Battery charger for general purpose usage.

Universal Battery Charger circuit diagram
The charger's output voltage is adjustable and regulated, and has an adjustable constant-current charging circuit that makes it easy to use with most NiCad batteries. The charger can charge a single cell or a number of series-connected cells up to a maximum of 18V.

Power transistors Q1 and Q2 are connected as series regulators to control the battery charger's output voltage and charge-current rate. An LM-317 adjustable voltage regulator supplies the drive signal to the bases of power transistor Q1 and Q2. Potensiometer R9 sets the output-voltage level. A current sampling resistor, R8 (a 0.1 ohm/5W unit), is connected between the negative output lead and circuit ground. For each amp of charging current that flows through R8, a 100mV output is developed across it. The voltage developed across R8 is fed to one input of comparator U3. The other input of the comparator is connected to variable resistor R10.

As the charging voltage across the battery begins to drop, the current through R8 decrease. Then the voltage feeding pin 5 of U3 decreases, and the comparator output follows, turning Q3 back off, which completes the signal's circular path to regulate the battery's charging current.

The charging current can be set by adjusting R10 for the desired current. The circuit's output voltage is set by R9

About Power Supply
A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term of "power supply" is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy.
A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. In the latter case, for example, low voltage DC power supplies are commonly integrated with their loads in devices such as computers and household electronics. More explanation about power supply can be found at wikipedia.org

This is the tutorial about "How to build an AC to DC power supply ". The video tutorial covers the basics of diodes, bridge rectifiers, and how to build simple unregulated AC to DC power supplies than can handle a few mA up to several Amps.

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