The 5V regulated power supply for TTL and 74LS series integrated circuits, has to be really precise and tolerant of voltage transients. These IC's are effortlessly damaged by short voltage spikes. A fuse will blow when its electric current rating is exceeded, but demands several hundred milliseconds to respond. This circuit will react in several microseconds, triggered when the output voltage exceeds the limit of the zener diode.
This circuit uses the crowbar method, where a thyristor is employed and short circuits the supply, causing the fuse to blow. This will take position in a few microseconds or less, and so provides considerably higher protection than an ordinary fuse. If the output voltage exceed 5.6Volt, then the zener diode will conduct, switching on the thyristor (all in some microseconds), the output voltage is therefore reduced to 0 volts and sensitive logic IC's will probably be saved. The fuse will nonetheless take just a few hundred milliseconds to blow but this just isn't significant now since the supply towards the circuit is already at zero volts and no damage can be completed. The dc input towards the regulator needs to be a few volts greater than the regulator voltage. Inside the case of a 5v regulator, I would suggest a transformer with secondary voltage of 8-10volts ac.